ISRAELI PASSPORTS FOR CHILDREN
The Ministry of Interior, which is responsible for issuing passports to its citizens, recognizes that parental guardianship under Israeli law includes the power of one parent to veto the issue of a passport to a child under 18.
Strict procedures govern the issuing of passports for minors, as precautionary measures. In certain circumstances one signature may be sufficient ( e.g. where no paternity is registered, or according to a court judgment, the other parent's signature is not required, or the parent applying has sole guardianship. Also if parents are married, and no notice has been received that the other parent objects to a passport being issued, then one of them can act alone).
However, in certain circumstances two signatures are required (e.g. where the mother is single and paternity is registered, or where parents are divorced, and there is no court judgment providing otherwise. Also, if the parents are married, but it has been reported that they separated or that one of them objects to a passport being issued for the child).
Children's passports are for five years and the minors themselves are required to appear in person. Children can no longer be listed on a parent's Israeli passport. A child who is an Israeli citizen is supposed to leave and enter Israel on an Israeli passport.
Regarding Israeli passports issued at Consulates abroad, the procedures are different, but the principle exists that Israeli passports should not be issued outside of Israel without the knowledge and consent of a non-Israeli parent.
In practice, however, it has been known for Israeli citizens abroad to manage to get Israeli passports for their children at very short notice, in alleged 'emergency' situations without the knowledge and consent of the other, non-Israeli parent abroad.
NON-ISRAELI PASSPORTS AND DUAL NATIONALITY
Where a child has dual nationality, having a foreign as well as an Israeli passport, the situation is more complicated, as although he/she is supposed to leave Israel on the Israeli passport, it is possible to do so on a foreign passport.
Physical presence of the parent who does not apply for the passport may not be needed. The details of the foreign passport may not be known to the other parent, and may therefore elude a 'stop order' issued by an Israeli court. It is, therefore, advisable, where possible, to keep a note of children's foreign passport details.
SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR FOREIGN PASSPORTS
The US has changed its policy about issuing passports to children. Both parents must attend in person for a child to be issued a US passport. The US Embassy in Israel co-operates with the Israeli authorities with information about the issuing of passports where a possible abduction is suspected.
A parent who suspects that a child with US citizenship who is habitually resident in Israel might be abducted out of Israel can notify the US embassy. He/she can request that a new passport should not be issued, if, for example, an Israeli court rules on a dispute between the parents.
Certain other embassies may also co-operate in this way, but there is a general policy of not trying to make life difficult for a citizen of that country who wishes to take out a passport for a child. It is generally regarded as up to the other parent to get legal advice and, if necessary, apply for a 'stop order' to prevent the minor leaving Israel if there is a fear of abduction.